Lectotypus of genus: Lupinus albus L.
About 135 million years ago there came splitting of Gondvana (Fig. 4B). As a result, South America was carved out of Africa. Nearly 50 million years ago partition of Lavrasia took place (Fig. 4C) which led to disconnection of North America from Europe. During the last 40 million years further extension of the basin of the Atlantic went on. In this period, South America was joined with North America and the continents acquired their modern configuration. There were isolated conditions on the continents, but because of those shifts the climate changed, which was mirrored in the evolution of florae. These epicyclical factors in combination with sporadic changes of solar radiation induced mutations of plants. They caused not only their extinction, but also uneven development. On different continents changes occurred differently and resulted in broad variability of florae. According to this hypothesis the unified primary center of formation for most ancient ancestors of lupin probably existed in the Cretaceous and subsequent periods until the splitting of continents initially on Pangea and afterwards on Lavrasia and Gondvana. Further on, as a result of subsequent division of the continents, the development of remote ancestors of lupin continued independently on the divided parts. It was homologous but not identical, pursuant to the Vavilov’s law (1920). As reported in publications (Ушаков, Ясманов, 1984), fast development and seizure of new biotic spaces by angiospermous vegetation started in the Cretaceous period. At that time there were many families of angiospermous plants, including the family Fabaceae Lindl. Proceeding from this thesis it is possible to surmise that a considerable proportion of ancient progenitors of lupins appeared also in the Cretaceous period in Lavrasia, and predominantly in its western part which subsequently turned into North America. It is confirmed by today’s presence on the American continent of a large number of species with more primitive features from the evolutionary viewpoint (long-term cycle of development, predominantly small-sized seed, monopodial branching). Because of the disjunction of continents the main part of the territory covered by the progenitors of lupin went to North America, while the second smaller part was left with Europe. This supposition is attested to by the presence of homologous series in heritable variation in the presently existing lupin forms in both hemispheres. Phylogenic proximity between them is confirmed by the combination of such attributes as coloring of seed, flowers and vegetative organs, and also by the parallelism in their age, pathological, mutational and hybridological variability. Further distribution of lupins or their progenitors from the north to the south, in particular from North America into Central and even South America and from Northern Europe into the countries of the Mediterranean and Africa, could have been provoked by periodically recurring changes of climate, chill and thaw, seismic activity or oscillations of the magnetic field. On the other hand, it is possible to explain the distribution of lupin in the indicated directions and their dissimilarities on different continents (in particular in Europe and Africa) by the previous drifts of the continents. Distribution and divergence of lupin progenitors could take place when Pangea divided into two large parts – Lavrasia and Gondvana – and later after the splitting of Gondvana. This problem provides free play to one’s fancy. When the continent drifted apart, however, lupin ancestors found themselves in isolated environments and started their independent development. The species of lupin currently existing in both hemispheres already emerged after the splitting of the continents. It explains the existence of two absolutely isolated lupin groups differing in morphological characters, development cycles, sets of chromosomes and having a genetic barrier against crossing.