Fruwirth (1925) marked that artificial isolation had no negative effect on the seed yield of this species. This opinion is shared by other researchers: Hallquist, 1921; Sypniewski, 1930; Шарапов, 1937; Mackiewicz, 1958. Roemer (1924) also attributed L. angustifolius to self-pollinated crops, because cross-pollination happens in this species extremely seldom, approximately in one case out of one thousand. However, that situation can change depending on the growing conditions and especially on the availability of bees. Sengbusch (1931) also expressed that classification of narrow-leafed lupin as a self-pollinated species is more justified than with yellow lupin. Flowering and fertilization in self-pollinated species, for example in L. angustifolius, occur only in closed flowers and on the earliest phases of their development. L. luteus is peculiar for the presence of not only self-pollination but also cross-pollination habit. Pollination occurs in this species also on very early phases of flower development. Thus, the arrangement of flowers in this species is verticillate, while in L. angustifolius and L. albus it is alternate. However, most part of lupins, especially from the American continent, is cross-pollinated. There are grounds to believe that the polymorphic genus of Lupinus L. includes all possible biological forms: from a self-pollinated up to mandatory cross-pollinated species. The flowers of lupin are pollinated by bees gathering pollen with their abdomen (Megalichidae). They have a special brush on the abdomen for collecting pollen. This group of insects includes many wild bees living alone (Wojciechowska, 1976, 1993). Honeybee and bumblebees also take part in the pollination process of yellow lupin. There are very interesting observations concerning the variation of color in the corolla during the flowering phase of L. pilosus Murr. and many other species of lupin (Wojciechowska, 1976, 1993). These data gain special significance, since bees and bumblebees have poorly sensitivity to the red color. Bumblebees visiting an inflorescence of lupin will penetrate only into such flowers that posses a white spot at the base of the flag. Bumblebees never pay any attention to the flowers with a red spot on the flag. As the inflorescence of lupin is a truss, flowering proceeds in the ascending order. The bottom flowers begin to blossom first, and then come the middle ones, and the last to open is the uppermost flower. According to Maissurjan and Atabiekova (1974), bumblebees come down on the lower flowers of a young blossoming inflorescence, then on the flowers in the middle of a more mature inflorescence, and lastly on the top of the inflorescence when the flowering phase comes to an end. But the data of our researches (T. Kazimierski, unpublished) evidence that bees also react to the color of flowers. In the experiments with yellow lupin having citric-yellow and orange flowers, it has been established that bees regularly come down on the flowers whose color is within certain limits (from citric to orange). If any plants with different colors were included in the experiment, the bees were attracted only by that color, from which their visiting had started, and avoided other colors. Bumblebees consecutively visited all flowers of yellow lupin. Alternate blossoming of flowers within the limits of one truss (from the bottom toward the top) as well as on the main stem and lateral branches also attests to the cross-pollination habit of lupin. The lateral branches begin to grow quickly after the appearance of pods on the main stem and spreading of the already existing pods over the main stem. Long-blossoming flowers on the lateral branches attract insects. Nipple-shaped outgrowths and hollows in the epidermis on different organs of the flower have recently been identified as another tool of adaptation to cross-pollination. The legs of insects seek them for support against sliding, and at the same time collect the pollen. Furthermore, these nipple-shaped outgrowths produce an odor attractive to insects. There are also a number of features hampering the process of self-pollination. There are such morphological obstacles as dichogamy, i.e. non-simultaneous ripening of male and female organs. Besides, the stigma of the pistil in many species is set much higher than the anthers. One more impediment is a collar of dense hairs covering the stigma. Such hairs were observed by us in many cross-pollinated species: L. mutabilis Sweet (Fig. 19 and 20), L. polluphullys Lindl, L. nannus Doudl and others, whereas in L. angustifolius L. (Fig.191) very short hairs or their absence do not create any obstacle for self-pollination. The castration of flowers will be carried out before artificial hybridization of lupin forms. The castration of flowers at lupin will carry out when the flower buds achieve half of normal size. The bottom flower buds are most suitable for castration. Usually are castrated 3-4 flower buds on one flower truss, others buds are deleted together with floral shoot.
The embryonal bag is formed at lupin for a type of Polygonum. However some researchers (Guignard, 1881; Романенко, 1937; Маркова, 1944) working with L. polyphyllus, have described of Allium-type of development of embryonal bag. The attempt of explanation of this problem can be found in the work of Palamarchuk (Паламарчук, 1959). Author shown, that developing chalazal megaspore at L. polyphyllus, passing stages of two and four nuclear embryonal bag, forms eight-nuclear bag of the normal Polygonum-type. Our investigations in area of megasporogenesis and macrosporogenesis of interspecific hybrids of lupin decline us however up to deep proviso of the contradictions in the work of the above-stated researcher We also have found out cases of development of embryonal bag for a type of Allium in the second-generation (F2) of hybrid L. hartwegii x L. pubescens. Some researchers treat such phenomenon as marginal, as deviations in ontogenesis. Others, for example Bergman (1957), describe the embryonal bags both mono and tetra sporiforous at the same plant of Leontodon hispidus var.hyosercides, and embryonal bags at Antenaria carpatica are formed as a minimum of three different types. Romanów (1957, 1960) mentions, that in the plants of species Tulipa analyzed by him, which have tetra sporiforous embryonal bags, he also found individual infringements and deviations in ontogenesis. He approves that such cases are essentially important for understanding of mutual connections and types of development. It is necessary to add, that at species breed by apomixis or vegetative, the type of development of embional bag has a supporting role, as at such forms usually are not fastened seeds. Urbańska (1956) has found out at Homogzne alpina, that embryonal bag can be developed from each of maccrospores. Kordium (1965) has observed within the limits of one plant of Bupleurum rotundifoliun development of embryonal bags for Polygonum, Allium and Adoxa types.
There are infringements in conjugation of chromosomes and in their division at infected plants. Therefore are formed damaged chromosomes and chromatides, the pollen have every possible deviations in development. In author’s researches is established that the pollen from the infected plants badly sprouts or does not sprout on artificial environments. The short pollen pipes are formed at sprouted pollen. (Kazimierska and Kazimierski, 1965).