The walls of cells are twisting on both surfaces of a leaf. Exception isL.albus, L.atlanticus, L.cosentinii and L.mutabilis, at which the majority of cells are rectilinear-roundish on the top party of a leaf. The cells ofL.hartwegii are weakly twisting. By the most twisting outlines of cells differ L.truncatus and L.elegans. Distinctive feature of perennial lupins is the large number of fine cells and also largely wavy and zigzag walls of cells. At all species of lupin, especial at L.albus and L.polyphyllus, the coats of epidermal cells have thickenings. For epidermis of the leaf are characteristic usually anomocytic type of the stomas. They are settling down on both leaf surfaces. However, the stomas at perennial multifoliate lupin are available only on the bottom surface of a leaf. The smallest number of stomas is marked at L.angustifolius and greatest is atL.polyphyllus, L.atlanticus, L.cosentinii, L.albus and L.mutabilis on bottom epidermis. The number of stomas at L.luteus and L.angustifolius on the top surface of a leaf approximately is twice more, than on bottom; at L.elegans and L.hartwegii, on the contrary, the quantity of stomas on bottom epidermis is more than on the top.
The asterinoid tissue in some species (L.angustifolius and L. pollyphyllus) directly adjoins the tracheal islet, while in other species it also has a two- or three-layered thin-walled parenchyma which surrounds the tracheal islet. In asterinoid tissue cells there can be pigments, sometimes specific to a certain species. Adjacent to both asterinoid tissue areas is porous tissue made of thin-walled cells of various shapes. This tissue has large intercellular spaces in L. angustifolius, and is strongly condensed in L.polyphyllus (Редькина, 1979). There is a layer of extended, slanting and strongly obliterated cells below the porous and asterinoid tissues. These are the remnants of a nutritive layer that separated cotyledons and seed coat.